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Luxor is the capital of Egypt in the Pharaonic era. It is located on the banks of the Nile River. It is divided into two parts: the eastern and western regions, the capital of Egypt’s southern province of Luxor, between 25-36 north latitude , 32-33 east, and about 670 km from the Egyptian capital of Cairo, about 220 km south of Aswan city, south of Qena city about 56 km, and about south west of Hurghada city about 280 km. The center of Edfu and the province of Aswan, to the east of the Red Sea province, to the west center of Arment and the province of the New Valley The nearest sea ports of the city is the port of Safaga, and is the nearest airports to Luxor International Airport.
According to the 2010 census, the city of Luxor is administratively divided into five sheikhs: Awamiyya, Old Karnak, New Karnak, Qurnah, Manshiyet Al-Amari and six cities. It is said that Luxor comprises about one-third of the world’s monuments. It also includes many ancient Pharaonic monuments divided into the eastern and western suburbs of the city. The eastern side includes the Temple of Luxor, Temple of Karnak, and the road of rams link between Ma And the Luxor Museum. The western bank includes the Valley of the Kings, the Monastery of the Sea, the Valley of the Queens, the Monastery of the City, the Temple of Ramessium, and the Statue of Memnon.
The establishment of the city of Taiba dates back to the fourth Dynasty around 2575 BC. Until the Middle Kingdom, it was no more than a group of simple huts. However, it was used as a cemetery to bury the dead. Then, the city of Taiba became the capital of Egypt in the 11th Egyptian Dynasty by Pharaoh Montuhotep I, who succeeded in reuniting the country again after the chaos that led to Egypt in the era of the first decay. The city of Taiba remained the capital of the Egyptian state until the fall of the rule Pharaohs and the family Thirty-first by Alf Q 332 BC.

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